Mahmud overthrows Sultan Mustafa IV and becomes Sultan Mahmud II.
THE IMPACT OF 1821 IN GREECE AND ON THE WORLD
1808

Mahmud overthrows Sultan Mustafa IV and becomes Sultan Mahmud II.

In 1808 Sultan Mustafa IV was overthrown, and Mahmoud II ascended to the throne of the Sultan. The new Sultan associated his name with the Europeanization of the Ottoman Empire and used the Greek Revolution to promote reforms such as abolishing the elite army unit of the janissaries. However, his violent practices, especially during the Greek Revolution (see Hanging of the Patriarch, Chios massacre), resulted in disputes with the Great Vizier and the head of the Ulemas, who were dismissed by the Sultan. In the end, the massacres reinforced the determination of the Greeks, the national character of their Revolution, and the demand for Independence.

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