1824

The Second Civil War

In the second phase of the civil conflict (July 1824 – January 1825), the two opposing sides differed from those of the first phase. One side included the prominent elders and militants of the Peloponnese (Kolokotronis, Deligiannis, Zaimis, Londos). The other one the islanders (mainly Hydreans), who allied with the expert in warfare Roumeliotes in an attempt to prevail. The second group (Kountouriotis) used the British loan money to pay the chieftains of Roumeli (Karaiskakis, Gouras, Makryiannis, Souliotes), who overwhelmed the Peloponnesians, committing indescribable destruction and looting. Panos Kolokotronis was murdered, and his devastated father, Theodoros, retired to Vytina. Eventually, the "pro-Government" winners exhibited, once again, compassion toward the losers. Ibrahim's landing forced them to grant a second amnesty and urge the return of Theodoros Kolokotronis as the General-in-Chief of the Greek army.